Center for Sexual and Gender Diversity

Narrative History of LGBT Life at Duke

By: Jess McDonald, Lumen Scholar from Elon University

Introduction
As at any school, the story of LGBTQ life at Duke University is intrinsically linked with the historical path of the University, and so it is worthwhile to note the timeline of the institution’s evolution.  Duke University traces its roots back to 1838, when it was founded in Randolph County, North Carolina, as a religiously affiliated private college geared toward men, although women attended sporadically.  In 1892, the college relocated to Durham, and it was renamed as Duke University in 1924.  Soon after, the Woman’s College was founded.[1]  Around the same time, the college grew to include graduate schools including a School of Religion, thus maintaining a religious presence on campus.  The men’s and women’s colleges merged in 1972 to become the Trinity College of Arts and Sciences, which still exists as Duke’s undergraduate college today.[2]  The university’s first gay student organization was formed soon after the merge, in the fall of 1972.[3]

The Early Years: Promise and Struggle (1972-1978)
The members named the new organization the Duke Gay Alliance (DGA), and their first newsletters say much about the campus climate of the early 1970s at Duke.  DGA members were self-aware of their early start, having organized before any groups in surrounding areas including NC State University and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.  From the metaphoric title of their newsletter, The Gay Morning Star, it also seems as if group members saw themselves as leaders in the fight for gay liberation at the time.  A newsletter writer strongly asserts, “The changes since the 1969 Stonewall Riot are epochal; with Harvard, Princeton, MIT, etc., etc., in the van on campus gay liberation, could Duke be far behind?”[4]  Members of the Duke Gay Alliance clearly viewed their organization’s formation as a response to the Stonewall riot, a violent reaction to a police raid on a gay bar in New York City that is widely hailed as a major milestone in initiating the gay liberation movement.[5] Their language demonstrates that rather than forming in response to a local incident or as a continuation of the activism of pre-Stonewall student groups, the DGA formed with strong political underpinnings and a connection to the wider gay liberation movement that organized after the Stonewall riots.
 
The conscious decision to form a student group, as well as the administration’s so-called “indulgent” attitudes towards openly gay faculty in the early 1970s (an extremely rare position at the time),[6] demonstrate a surprisingly gay-friendly campus climate for a small, private university in the 1970s South.  It was probably the presence of gay faculty and the tolerance of the administration that resulted in the uncontested formation of the Duke Gay Alliance in 1972 and their continued existence on campus.  This support was also manifested in the 1973 "Student Affairs Workshop on Homosexuality."[7]  Nonetheless, when the Duke Gay Alliance requested that “sexual orientation” be added to the university’s nondiscrimination policy in 1974, President Sanford promptly denied the request.[8]

Unsurprisingly, there are other indications of a negative campus climate during the 1970s at Duke.  In one of the first newsletters, a student notes with mixed feelings that “In most cases, gay students with decent averages have not been expelled, merely mis-advised to seek psychiatric help or, at best, ignored,”[9] and a 1971 alumnus explains that he felt pressured to remain completely closeted during his time at Duke.[10]  A 1978 alumnus says that there was not an LGBT support system during his time as a student and, “We didn’t talk about LGBT then.  Most gays and lesbians were closeted, were fearful.”[11]  In the DGA’s newsletter, the university is referred to as “a campus full of empty closets whose reputation for straighter-than-thou conformity has remained unspotted by any genuine radicalism,”[12] an environment that forced “most gays to defer -- in some cases for years -- any commitment about their sexual orientation.”[13]  This is in stark contrast to the relatively positive environment at UNC Chapel Hill, and DGA members “would have expected Gay Liberation to appear there first….”[14]  From this, one can infer that Duke’s student life at the time was not very pro-gay.  The writer notes that the social life of gay men mainly consisted of small coteries around one or multiple gay professors or off-campus “tea-rooms.”[15]

It is also worthwhile to note the presence or lack thereof of women in the Duke Gay Alliance.  The non-inclusive title of the Duke Gay Alliance and references to “Gay sisters” [16] rather than lesbians indicate a male-dominant power structure within the group.  Following the feminist movements of the 1960s, many same-sex attracted women adamantly referred to themselves as lesbian rather than gay.[17]  With the non-inclusive language of the DGA’s early literature, it is not surprising than only “approximately one third” of their members were women.[18]  Though the DGA sponsored a lesbian rap group, this group separated from the DGA in 1974 to form the Triangle Area Lesbian Feminists.[19]  It seems likely that the fresh merge of the men and women’s colleges contributed to the gender gap within the group.

The Conservative Era & AIDS Backlash (1979-1987)
The 1980s were a difficult time for LGBTQ students at Duke University.  Fiercely conservative senator Jesse Helms reigned as a North Carolina representative, and Ronald Reagan was elected President in 1980.  AIDS was beginning to devastate communities across the United States, particularly those of gay males.  Known as GRID (Gay-Related Immune Deficiency) in its early days, the condition became known as AIDS in 1982.[20]

These factors had dramatic consequences on the Duke Gay and Lesbian Alliance (a name change that occurred somewhere between the mid-1970s and early 1980s).  In 1983, the president of Duke’s student government vetoed the group’s charter because a university lawyer advised him that the charter encouraged "homosexual activity," an encouragement that he said was prohibited by North Carolina law.  The student government president encouraged the DGLA to change their purpose from “promoting a social setting for gays and lesbians” to include a more informational role and resubmit their charter.[21]  The details from the coverage of the veto by UNC’s Carolina Gay Association hint that the fear of AIDS may have influenced the decision.[22]  The DGLA considered suing Duke’s student government,[23] and they likely would have won considering that the Court had already stated that “mere speculation of future illegal activity was an insufficient reason for regulation by the university” in a previous case (Gay Students Organization of the University of New Hampshire v. Bonner [1974]).[24] 

Nevertheless, it does not appear that Duke’s student group took the case to court.  The student government’s November referendum included a poll to measure student support of the “anti-homosexual statutes of North Carolina,” and the student government planned to send a letter to the NC legislature or other appropriate authority to make the position of Duke students known.[25]  The poll showed that 56.2 percent of voters opposed the statutes.[26]  The DGLA charter was resubmitted, debated by the student government, and then the vote was delayed.[27]  The Chronicle published a letter to the editor expressing disappointment about the veto in December 1983,[28] and the trail runs cold from there.  The only other information available from this time period is student organization charter requests.  A request from early 1986 indicates that DGLA had been active “under this name and new charter, two semesters.”[29]  Another charter from later that year states that the DGLA was “organizing as a brand new group.”[30]  It seems that neither group kept very good records, if they kept any at all.  It is difficult to know whether this means the groups were less active, operating underground, or if there were other factors preventing them from keeping records.

Rekindling Momentum on Campus (1988-1995)
The DGLA became increasingly active on campus in the late 1980s and early 1990s.  In 1988, the group grew from six to twenty members and sought to raise awareness of gay and lesbian struggles through actions such as Blue Jeans Day, a designated date on which gay and lesbian students were asked to wear blue jeans.  DGLA students hoped that the day would empower the gay and lesbian community and challenge all students to consider homophobia on campus.[31]  Additionally, a significant event in the history of Duke’s LGBTQ community occurred on December 9, 1988, when the Board of Trustees extended the university’s nondiscrimination policy to include "sexual preference."[32]

Meanwhile, many student groups organized around LGBT issues during this time period.  These included the statewide NC Federation of Campus Gay and Lesbian Organizations (1988),[33] the Graduate and Professional Gay and Lesbian Alliance at Duke (1989),[34] a straight-allied group called Harmony at Duke (1990)[35], Divinity Students for Gay and Lesbian Concerns (1990),[36] and the Committee on Gay and Lesbian Legal Issues in Duke’s law school.  Aurora: The Duke Gay and Lesbian Newsletter, created as a reincarnation of the DGA’s The Gay Morning Star, was first published in 1989.[37]

By the early 1990s, HIV/AIDS had become a battle to be fought rather than a disease that forced surrender.  The AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power (ACT UP), a direct action advocacy group concerned with HIV/AIDS issues, expanded to the Triangle in 1990;[38] meanwhile, the Duke University AIDS Task Force was hard at work.  By the fall of 1990, the University AIDS Task Force had resolved “that the creation of a task force on gay and lesbian concerns should be a matter of highest priority if the University is to confront effectively the threat of AIDS to our students.”  The following AIDS Task Force document explains the perceived connection between HIV and the gay and lesbian community at Duke:

Despite having the knowledge to avoid infection with HIV, many gay men and men who consider themselves heterosexual but are sexually active with other men, continue to practice unsafe sex.  Fear, denial of their sexual orientation, and lack of a sense of self-worth and of acceptance are obstacles to the adoption of behaviors to protect themselves and others.[39]

While these words may seem somewhat misguided today, they are more understandable through a historical lens.  An LGBT-friendly campus would mean less stigmatization of LGBT students and the issues they face, including the threat of AIDS.  Additionally, simply discussing HIV/AIDS and related issues is a positive step forward compared to ignoring the condition or refusing to take proactive steps.  There were clear signs that these steps needed to be made, such as the defacement of a DGLA welcome message to new students with the phrase “NO THANKS AIDS KILLS,” which ignited a firestorm of controversial reactions across campus as seen in the Chronicle.[40]

In 1991, the Task Force on Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Matters (later amended to the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Task Force) was established by President Keith Brodie.  This group of faculty, staff, and students were charged with assessing “attitudes and conditions on campus regarding gay, lesbian, and bisexual students and issues,” as well as recommending changes in the Duke community.[41]  The creation of this Task Force was a huge impetus of further change.  With the official recognition of LGB concerns on campus, Duke’s administration made a further commitment to honor their 1988 nondiscrimination policy change and support students regardless of their sexual orientation.  This soon became apparent in February 1991, when a top administrator was suspended for one month without pay and required to perform volunteer work and complete a course on gender issues after anti-gay discrimination in his hiring practices.[42]  By 1992, the position of Lesbian and Bisexual Women’s Programming Coordinator had been created in the Women’s Center.[43]  Gay, lesbian, and bisexual alumni organized in 1993 and became known as Gay and Lesbian Alumni - Duke (GALA-Duke) in 1994.[44]

The Creation of an Institution (1994-2000)
Thanks largely to the work on the LGBT Task Force, the University Center for Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Life was established in October 1994.  However, the Center lacked full- or part-time staff other than one work-study student.[45]  Nevertheless, the creation of a space devoted to LGB life at Duke was a notable advancement.  By this time, the DGLA had changed its name to the Duke Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Association and grown to over 90 active members,[46] and the Duke Guild for Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Concerns had formed as an organization for LGB employees.[47]  In addition, Counseling and Psychology Services had created a position and hired a therapist for Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Services and Sexuality Programming.[48]  Trinity College first offered a “Perspectives in Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Studies” course during 1994[49]  and, after much hard work by a dedicated group of faculty and staff, 1994 was also the year that Duke extended “same-sex spousal equivalent” benefits to employees.[50]  These developments indicate the growing support of the university for LGBTQ students, staff, and faculty and their concerns.  Nevertheless, some people on campus were not as supportive.  Another hate speech incident occurred in 1994 when paintings promoting for Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Awareness Week were covered with anti-gay slogans on the bridge between East and West campus.[51]

The year 1995 brought the resurgence of an LGB student group’s newsletter, previously published as The Gay Morning Star, then Aurora, and now as Outlines: The Newsletter of the Duke Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Association.[52]  In the mean time, Spectrum (an umbrella association of multicultural groups at Duke) denied the DGBLA admission and changed its description from “multicultural” to “multiethnic,” disappointing many LGBTQ students, staff, faculty, and allies.[53]  However, positive change occurred when the Student Government increased DGLBA’s funding for the first time in over a decade.[54]  The following year, the university hired Dr. John Howard as the LGB Center’s first half-time director and moved the Center to a larger space.[55]  In addition, the Arts and Sciences Council approved the Study of Sexualities program in 1996.

In 1997, the Center for LGB Life changed its name to the Center for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Life.[56]  During the same year, the DGBLA changed its name to Gothic Queers in an effort to reflect the new attitude of the resurgent queer community at Duke,[57] a resurgence spurred largely by Director John Howard.  As had been done by other groups in the past, they painted the bridge between East and West campus to publicize National Coming Out Week and were unhappily surprised to find that the Department of Facilities Management deemed their messages offensive and painted over them. They charged the university with censorship[58] and, after discussion within university administration, the Director of Facilities Management made an official apology.[59]

Duke hosted the Southeastern Conference for LGBT College Groups in 1998,[60] and Dr. Karen Krahulik was hired as the new, full-time director of the LGB Center in 1999.[61]  Reflecting the name changes of other related student groups, the Committee on Gay and Lesbian Legal Issues changed its name to OUTLaw around the same time.[62]  Gothic Queers faced more opposition when anti-gay slogans appeared on the bridge between East and West Campus, which they had painted bright pink in preparation for their pride week.[63]  The same year, The Princeton Review’s Best 331 Colleges ranked Duke as the top school at which “Acceptance of gay community is low.”  Many students, faculty, and staff criticized the rankings, especially after it was revealed that the rankings were based on only 63 surveys.[64]  While it may seem that Duke’s LGBTQ community faced much opposition in the late 1990s, it is crucial to recognize the importance of the creation of the LGBT Center and the improving support of the administration in facing these struggles – a support that would have been far less likely to appear in the decade prior.

A Continuing Evolution (2000-2010)
In 2000, Duke Allies was created as a counterpart of Gothic Queers for straight allies.  The Chronicle quoted the 2002 president of Duke Allies as saying, “Duke Allies gives people who are in the closet, or people who are intimidated by GQ an outlet.  We really wanted to make it more of a stepping-stone to activism or the gay social atmosphere on campus."[65]  In addition to the formation of Duke Allies, 2000 was the first year that same-sex union ceremonies were allowed in Duke Chapel.[66]

President Keohane endorsed SAFE – Students, Administrators and Faculty for Equality – in 2001 in an effort to train allies across campus and make them more visible.[67]  In 2002, DukeOUT formed as a group for graduate and profession LGBTQ students and their allies.[68]  Meanwhile, Gothic Queers changed its name to the Alliance of Queer Undergraduates at Duke (AQUADuke) and changed their policies to reinforce confidentiality rules and increase outreach to closeted students.[69]  In 2003, the “Gay? Fine By Me” t-shirt project began at Duke, and it has since spread across the country.[70]  The following year, the Center for LGBT Life changed spaces again and doubled in size.[71]

Dr. Janie Long was hired as the new Center director in 2006,[72] the same year that The Advocate College Guide for LGBT Students ranked Duke as one of the top twenty US schools for LGBT students.  Many students and faculty, however, questioned the rankings and suggested that the results were distorted.[73]  “Gender identity” was added to the university’s nondiscrimination policy in 2007,[74] the same year that the first campus-wide Coming Out Day was held outdoors on Duke Plaza (as opposed to prior celebrations that occurred in the Center’s indoor space downstairs).  This event also marked the launching of the “Love = Love” t-shirt project, in which free shirts supporting LGBTQ equality are distributed on campus.[75]

In 2008, Duke Allies and AQUADuke combined to become Blue Devils United.[76]  Soon after, the group created a blog titled “Our Lives.”[77]  The same year, a group called Women Loving Women was created to support Duke women (both undergraduate and graduate students) who had an attraction to other women. This group was the first space exclusively for queer women on record since the late 1980s, and it was created in hopes of increasing the involvement of women in LGBTQ life at Duke.  Reverend Gene Robinson, who gained worldwide attention as the first openly gay Episcopalian bishop, also visited Duke in 2008 and spoke to a crowd of hundreds in Duke Chapel.[78] 

Several hate speech incidents occurred in 2009, including graffiti with swastikas, anti-gay vandalism on an East campus bench,[79] and the defacement of LGBTQ pride paintings on the bridge between East and West campus.  In a strong show of unity, members of Blue Devils United and their friends responded by hanging rainbow flags out of their dorm windows.[80]  In 2010, a new publication (and officially recognized student group) for queer women called WOMYN was launched in hopes of inspiring a “larger, confident, and powerful queer women’s presence at Duke.”[81]  Additionally, Duke's Student Government voted to support gender-neutral housing in 2010, and policy changed to allow students to use their preferred name rather than their birth name on class rosters.  Summer 2010 also marked the kickoff of the Duke LGBT Network, a new initiative to connect alumni, students, faculty, and staff and serve the LGBT community of Duke University.[82]

Conclusion: More Visibility, More Support
In Fall 2009, the Blue Devils United blog “Our Lives” was relaunched with a new mission statement and without the anonymity of the first blog.  The blog editor writes, “We’ve decided to abandon the pseudonyms of [the blog from] last year and put real names and faces to our words.  To do otherwise, we feel, would falsely connote a sense of fear among the staff.  We are not afraid, and we feel safe here.”[83]  This visibility contrasts starkly with similar, earlier LGBTQ newsletters published by student groups at Duke, in which writers resisted using their full name or, in the case of the last newsletter on record (published in 1995), one person wrote all of the submissions.[84]  The support for and visibility of LGBTQ students today suggests a promising future of continuing success and growth for the LGBTQ community at Duke University.
 
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     [1] Duke University, “Women at Duke,” University Archives, http://library.duke.edu/uarchives/
exhibits/women-history/ (accessed May 8, 2010).
     [2] Duke University, “Duke University: A Brief Narrative History,” University Archives, http://library.duke.edu/uarchives/history/narrativehistory.html (accessed April 11, 2010).
     [3] “Duke Gay Alliance,” Student Organizations of Duke University [1972-1973], pg. 25, News Service Subject Files, 1930-[ongoing]., Duke University’s University Archives, 1st 9: D Box 118, Durham, NC.
     [4] Ibid, 4.
     [5] See David Carter, Stonewall: The Riots that Sparked the Gay Revolution (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2004); Martin Duberman, Stonewall (New York: Penguin Books USA, Inc., 1994); Nicholas Edsall, Toward Stonewall: Homosexuality and Society in the Modern Western World (Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2003).
     [6] Ibid, 2.
     [7] “Student Affairs Workshop on Homosexuality,” Gay Workshop – Staff, 71-73, Minister of the University Records, 1940-1984, University Archives, Library Service Center Box 5, Durham, NC.
     [8] Terry Sanford to John Martin, Nov. 21, 1974, Students. Gay Alliance, 1974, Terry Sanford records and papers 1945-1998, University Archives, 1st 16:A-D Box 123, Durham, NC.
     [9] Stillman, 4.
     [10] “Duke’s Gay Community… Taking a New Road to a Brighter Future,” (Durham, NC: Duke University LGBT Center, 1994), Alliance of Queer Undergraduates at Duke (AQUADuke) records, 1973-1995, Duke University’s University Archives, 1st 3: A Box 1, Durham, NC.
     [11] Jacob Dagger, “Gay. Fine by Duke?,” Duke Magazine 94, no. 2, March-April 2008, pg. 2, http://www.dukemagazine.duke.edu/issues/030408/gay2.html.
     [12] Stillman, 1
     [13] Ibid, 2
     [14] Ibid, 1
     [15] Ibid, 2
     [16] “Who Are We?,” The Gay Morning Star: Newsletter of the Duke Gay Alliance 1, no. 1, March 1973, pg. 2, Alliance of Queer Undergraduates at Duke (AQUADuke) records, 1973-1995, Duke University’s University Archives, 1st 3: A Box 1, Durham, NC.
     [17] “Lesbian Feminism,” glbtq: an encyclopedia of gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, & queer culture, http://www.glbtq.com/social-sciences/lesbian_feminism.html (accessed May 8, 2010).
     [18] “Who Are We?,” 2.
     [19] “Notes Toward a History,” Feminary 9, 1 (1978): 26-28, 56, as cited by James T. Sears in Rebels, Rubyfruit, and Rhinestones: Queering Space in the Stonewall South (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2001), 346.
     [20] “1981: The Beginning,” The History of AIDS, 2005, http://fohn.net/history-of-aids/.
     [21] Joe McHugh, “DGLA to change constitution,” Chronicle, 12 Oct 1983, p. 3.
     [22] “Duke Student Government Revokes DGLA Charter,” LAMBDA: Carolina Gay Association Newsletter 10, no. 2 (Nov/Dec 1983): 1.
     [23] Amanda Elson, “Gay alliance may sue ASDU,” Chronicle, 25 Oct 1983, p. 3.
     [24] Loren J. Rullman, “A Legal History: University Recognition of Homosexual Organizations,” Association of College Unions-International Bulletin 59 no. 2 (1991): 5, http://eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ ED333837.pdf.
     [25] Amanda Elson, “Six referenda slated for ASDU ballot,” Chronicle, 14 Nov 1983, p. 1, 6.
     [26] “ASDU runoff slated for Thursday,” Chronicle, 16 Nov 1983, p. 3.
     [27] Danny Rader, “ASDU delays DGLA vote,” Chronicle, 8 Nov 1983, p. 4.
     [28] Eric A. Isaacson, “Decision ‘disgusting,’” Chronicle, 1 Dec 1983, p. 8.
     [29] “Student Organization Charter,” Charters 1985-86 (Approved Charter Requests), Associated Students of Duke University records, 1965-1993, University Archives 1st 5:A-C Box 4, Durham, NC.
     [30] “Student Organization Charter,” Charters 1986-87 (Approved Charter Requests), Associated Students of Duke University records, 1965-1993, University Archives 1st 5:A-C Box 4, Durham, NC.
     [31] Chris Graham, “Jeans Day to publicize gay presence,” Chronicle, 16 Nov 1988, p. 1, 6.
     [32] Kathleen Sullivan, “Board passes sexual preference clause, rejects mission statement,” Chronicle, 12 December 1988, p. 2.
     [33]  Mark Donahue to Members of the NC Federation of Campus Gay and Lesbian Organizations, 21 Nov 1988, Campus Organizations: Other Schools, 1989, undated, Alliance of Queer Undergraduates at Duke (AQUADuke) records, 1973-1995, Duke University’s University Archives, 1st 3: A Box 1, Durham, NC.
     [34] “GPGLA,” Aurora: The Duke University Gay and Lesbian Newsletter 1, no. 2 (Fall 1989): 10.
     [35] Peggy Krendl, “Group tries to smooth tensions over sexual preference,” Chronicle, 21 Sept 1990, p. 3.
     [36] “Divinity School Form Lesbian and Gay Concerns Organization,” Aurora: The Duke University Gay and Lesbian Newsletter 2, no. 2 (Fall 1990): 1-2.
     [37] R. Shoop, “Notes from the Editor,” Aurora: The Duke University Gay and Lesbian Newsletter 1, no. 2 (Fall 1989): 1.
     [38] “ACT UP Triangle Organizes and ACTS,” Aurora: The Duke University Gay and Lesbian Newsletter 2, no. 2 (Fall 1990): 3.
     [39] “Task Force on Gay and Lesbian Concerns to be Formed,” Aurora: The Duke University Gay and Lesbian Newsletter 2, no. 2 (Fall 1990): 10.
     [40] See “Bashing Back,” Chronicle, 11 Sept 1990, p. 8; Michael Grubb, “Defeating ignorance begins one person at a time,” Chronicle, 17 Sept 1990, p. 7; “Building Bridges,” Chronicle, 18 Sept 1990, p. 8; Lesley McCollough, “Chronicle shouldn’t set campus agenda,” Chronicle, 19 Sept 1990, p. 8; and Rob Odom, “Ask some questions,” Chronicle, 28 Sept 1990, p. 8;.
     [41] Duke University Task Force on Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Matters, “1991-1992 Report,” 28 Aug 1992, Task Force on Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Matters Reports, Student Affairs Reference Collection, 1934-ongoing, University Archives, Cage Box 1, Durham, NC.
     [42] Michael Saul, “Top administrator suspended for alleged discrimination,” Chronicle, 21 Feb 1991, p. 1, 10.
     [43] Duke Women’s Center, “Programming for Lesbian/Bisexual Women,” General Meeting Minutes 1990-1992, Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Task Force records 1991-1998, University Archives, Library Service Center Box 1, Durham NC.
     [44] “Introduction,” GALA-DUKE Newsletter 1, no. 1 (Winter/Spring 1994): 1, External Correspondence 1991-1992, Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Task Force records 1991-1998, University Archives, Library Service Center Box 1, Durham NC.
     [45] Harris Hwang, “New center to address gay, bi, lesbian issues,” Chronicle, 30 Nov 1994, http://dukechronicle.com/node/105101.
     [46] Lisa Pasquariello, “DGLA chair seeks to make organization more visible,” Chronicle, 24 March 1994, http://dukechronicle.com/node/104338.
     [47] Email from Robin Buhrke, “Task Force Minutes- 9/13/94,”  27 Sept 1994, Agenda and Minutes 1993-1994, Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Task Force records 1991-1998, University Archives, Library Service Center Box 1, Durham NC..
     [48] “Duke’s Gay Community… Taking a New Road to a Brighter Future,” (Durham, NC: Duke University LGBT Center, 1994), Alliance of Queer Undergraduates at Duke (AQUADuke) records, 1973-1995, Duke University’s University Archives, 1st 3: A Box 1, Durham, NC.
     [49] Ibid.
     [50] “Milestones,” Duke University Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Task Force, 2010, http://www.duke.edu/web/lgbttf/.
     [51] “Free to be ignorant: University should not squelch expression,” Chronicle, 24 March 1994, http://dukechronicle.com/node/104344.
     [52] Outlines: The Newsletter of the Duke Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Association 1, no. 1 (May 1995).
     [53] Matt Lynch, “Spectrum denies DGBLA admission,” Outlines: The Newsletter of the Duke Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Association 1, no. 1 (May 1995): 3; “Multi-what?,” Chronicle, 10 April 1995, http://dukechronicle.com/node/106197.  
     [54] Ivan Snyder, “DSG ups DGBLA’s funds after 13 years,” Chronicle, 30 March 1995, p. 1.
     [55] Brian Harris, “Center announces director,” Chronicle, 12 Sept 1996, http://dukechronicle.com/node/109386; “Milestones,” Duke University Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Task Force, 2010, http://www.duke.edu/web/lgbttf/.
     [56] Email from John Howard, “A New Name,” 7 Sept 1997.
     [57] Blake Dickinson, “Duke gay organizations taking more direct approaches,” Durham Herald-Sun, 20 April 1997, Student Affairs Reference Collection, 1934-ongoing, University Archives, Cage Box 1, Durham, NC.
     [58] Jessica Foster, Christine Hong, et al., “Gothic Queers responds to bridge censorship,” Chronicle 9 Oct 1997, http://dukechronicle.com/node/112360; Devin Gordon, “Gothic Queers charge censorship,” Chronicle, 9 Oct 1997, http://dukechronicle.com/node/112356.
     [59] Jerry Black, “Facilities management makes official apology,” Chronicle, 7 Nov 1997, http://dukechronicle.com/node/112711.
     [60] “Milestones,” Duke University Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Task Force, 2010, http://www.duke.edu/web/lgbttf/.
     [61] Richard Rubin, “University names new LGBT center director,” Chronicle, 4 April 1999, http://dukechronicle.com/article/university-names-new-lgbt-center-director.
     [62]  Greg Pessin, “School reconsiders military recruiters,” Chronicle, 25 Oct 1999, http://dukechronicle.com/article/school-reconsiders-military-recruiters.
     [63] Katherine Stroup, “Gothic Queers bridge-painting stirs opposition, counter-protest,” Chronicle, 25 April 1999, http://dukechronicle.com/article/gothic-queers-bridge-painting-stirs-opposition-counter-protest. 
     [64] Trey Davis, “Book calls Duke intolerant of gays,” Chronicle, 9 Sept 1999, http://dukechronicle.com/article/book-calls-duke-intolerant-gays-intolerant-gays.
     [65] Matt Bradley, “Duke Allies seek better atmosphere,” Chronicle, 4 Feb 2002, http://dukechronicle.com/article/duke-allies-seek-better-atmosphere.
     [66] “Milestones,” Duke University Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Task Force, 2010, http://www.duke.edu/web/lgbttf/.
     [67] Ibid; Matt Bradley, “Program helps students feel ‘SAFE,’” Chronicle, 18 Sept 2001, http://dukechronicle.com/article/program-helps-students-feel-safe.  
     [68] “Past Events,” DukeOUT, 2008, http://www.duke.edu/web/gap/DukeOUT/PastEvents.html.
     [69] Liz Williams, “AQUADuke focuses on outreach,” The Chronicle, 17 Feb 2005, http://dukechronicle.com/article/aquaduke-focuses-outreach.
     [70] “About gay? fine by me,” Atticus Circle, 2009, http://www.atticuscircle.org/about-gay-fine-by-me.
     [71] “Milestones,” Duke University Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Task Force, 2010, http://www.duke.edu/web/lgbttf/.
     [72] Ashley Dean, “Center for LGBT gets new head,” Chronicle, 24 August 2006, http://dukechronicle.com/article/center-lgbt-gets-new-head.
     [73] Ally Helmers, “Friendly confines?,” Chronicle, 2 October 2008, http://dukechronicle.com/node/147017.
     [74] “Milestones,” Duke University Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Task Force, 2010, http://www.duke.edu/web/lgbttf/.
     [75] Janie Long, interview by author, 14 July 2010, Durham, NC.
     [76] Cassidy Fleck, “Gay pride parade marches on East,” Chronicle, 28 Sept 2008, http://dukechronicle.com/node/146941.
     [77] “Purpose and Goal,” Our Lives. (the archives), 1 Dec 2008, http://bduarchives.blogspot.com/2008/12/purpose-and-goal.html.
     [78] Janie Long, interview by author, 14 July 2010, Durham, NC.
     [79] “Giles vandalism intolerable,” Chronicle, 25 Feb 2009, http://dukechronicle.com/node/148531.
     [80] Viviana Santiago, “Blue Devils United respond to East Campus bridge incident,” Chronicle, 1 October 2009, http://dukechronicle.com/article/blue-devils-united-respond-east-campus-bridge-incident.
     [81] Megan Weinand, “Let’s talk about Womyn,” Our Lives, 28 April 2010, http://www.bluedevilsunited.com/2010/04/lets-talk-about-womyn.html.
     [82] “NY Event Launches New Duke LGBT Network,” Duke Today, 14 June 2010, http://www.dukenews.duke.edu/2010/06/lgbt.html.
     [83] Chris Perry, “Liftoff!,” Our Lives, 9 Nov 2009, http://www.bluedevilsunited.com/2009/11/liftoff_09. html.
     [84] See Outlines: The Newsletter of the Duke Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Association 1, no. 1 (May 1995)